The first two articles in this series aimed to demystify two terms that we’re hearing a lot these days: Big data and advanced analytics. In this final article, my goal is to explain a term that is less commonly heard, but equally relevant to the biorefining sector: The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). Before getting to grips with IIoT, let’s cover the Internet of Things (IoT). Sometimes described as ‘machine to machine communication’, IoT is essentially about data transfer. It describes the ability of machines (things) to connect via the internet. This connection allows them to gather and exchange data in such a way that the machines themselves can make data-based decisions.